Top 5 Dedicated server bitcoin accepted – Opted Minds

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/wlwj7pmmyoi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=34918b25c8ef6303fc5579666352e8c8c52c4835
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/9eynt6jpyoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=c6073e7717ece1c8b878e02e34c9e359e3282fd7
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

https://preview.redd.it/1wgbdybryoi41.png?width=1684&format=png&auto=webp&s=baf87b413947a19e745fcd859c0706a1cf8570b2
The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
https://preview.redd.it/veb0q18syoi41.png?width=1096&format=png&auto=webp&s=c8ea3bedd09e16e548c6da938d50f3b245e18ac6

https://preview.redd.it/r9j1v04tyoi41.png?width=1252&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae9cc70a01f6360550d7f1f00e046d9b801b89a1
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

https://preview.redd.it/9v7rxtmvyoi41.png?width=1197&format=png&auto=webp&s=01c9d6e0a73f595283e3cebeb45b5a6bf484d94d
Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
https://preview.redd.it/18e9wwq7zoi41.png?width=2356&format=png&auto=webp&s=537b2e70139bb0e70fcd615c497541fc89bba97f
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
https://preview.redd.it/7jqjt9v8zoi41.png?width=1127&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f40c1ae463d76c6c6b46a9e716e544e06ef3cd4
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/xfthwuz9zoi41.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=8721b0ae8cff0d8aa11a484ac0ac842e700def0a
The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/4zgt0umazoi41.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=49a840532d70740a77c00901aafd047311b84229
Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

https://preview.redd.it/ef5z0jbbzoi41.png?width=752&format=png&auto=webp&s=3fd398e0b9917e338fb6c3e0afb477d82dfeb1c8
Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
https://preview.redd.it/0u93b51czoi41.png?width=1441&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7ecbf440684a926b66db7273fdba9acfda826d7

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
https://preview.redd.it/ob1vzu7dzoi41.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=af9fc79d4749005e60666e3f21cee1a10e9b2275

Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.
https://preview.redd.it/rgo9n1ydzoi41.png?width=1220&format=png&auto=webp&s=2521b5968cfb2d8533da0963d3f838b9f518faa5

SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.
https://preview.redd.it/fd1m5uvezoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=99c5b1893d851ba1effe7b5e73480c27f3f7973e

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to QuantNetwork [link] [comments]

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

https://preview.redd.it/6m1gp2mvotx41.png?width=1160&format=png&auto=webp&s=a83f0346d8008c17968d6a240cfba8fe3fe4e2aa
Continuing the trend of practicality characteristic of the XXI century, paper money is gradually disappearing from our lives, giving way to more practical digital storage. However, the digitized banking that we now use every day is still far from perfect. For starters, it is completely controlled by third parties. No one owns the numbers they see on the screen — control is entirely owned by third parties, such as banks.
Banks create money out of thin air, and credit is a prime example of this. Money is no longer printed when someone takes out an overdraft or mortgage-it is simply created out of nothing. Moreover, these banks charge disproportionately high fees for the services they provide, and these services are outdated and impractical today.
For example, it is impractical to pay a Commission to spend your money abroad, as it is impractical to wait a few days to verify the transfer of a small amount from You to your relative. All this makes no sense in the interconnected and instantaneous world in which We live today.
Thus, the monetary system has ceased to be practical, it is replaced by a higher form of value storage. In this particular case, it is replaced by a faster and safer system that eliminates expensive operations and gives control to the person.
https://i.redd.it/quc2bgmxotx41.gif
Money that you have in your Bank account can be considered a virtual currency since it does not have a physical form and exists only in the Bank book. If they lose the book, your money will simply disappear. These are just numbers that you see on the screen. The numbers are stored on the hard drives of Bank servers.

https://i.redd.it/4nvhydtzotx41.gif
Do you open a regular app and think you have money? They are just bytes of the computer system. Today’s global payment infrastructure moves money from one payment system to another through a series of internal Deposit transfers between financial institutions. Since these transfers occur in different systems with a low level of coordination, the calculation of funds is slow, often 3–5 days, capturing liquidity.

How do payments work?

When you make a money transfer, for example, from your Bank card to the Bank card of a friend or acquaintance, you see an instant transfer, so to speak, moving numbers from you to the Recipient. For the user, the transfer is carried out instantly, and the exchange of obligations between the participants of the process takes place within 3–7 days, the User does not know about it and hardly ever thinks about it.

https://preview.redd.it/rl4aai81ptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=cdfa10f0d68442aac84c14e3bae5a52e92651878
When you make a payment at a supermarket or any other point of sale, at the time of payment, information from the POS-terminal is sent to the acquiring Bank — then the acquiring Bank sends a request that passes through the payment system (Visa or MasterCard) and then transmitted to Your Bank, which confirms the operation. At this point, there is no write-off of funds. The funds are temporarily held, and the actual withdrawal will take place within a few days, the maximum processing time is up to 30 days.
https://i.redd.it/8njxgxq2ptx41.gif

Currency transactions and payments abroad

You may have noticed that after making a transaction in a different currency, such as yen or dirhams, or any other currency that differs from the currency of your account or buying an item abroad, the amount charged may differ from the amount that was reflected immediately after payment.

Why is this happening?

As soon As you have made a transaction with Your Bank card — the local Bank transfers the information to the payment system: Visa or MasterCard — the payment system converts the currency used into the billing currency.
Billing currency — the currency that will be used for payment with the payment system by your Bank that issued the card. For the US, the billing currency is the dollar, in Europe — the Euro.
The billing currency may also differ depending on the issuing Bank — the Bank that issued your debit card. For example, some banks use the billing currency — Euro when making payments with MasterCard cards in the United States, which will lead to additional costs when converting euros into dollars.
If the payment is in other currencies, the payment scheme will become more complicated and, accordingly, its cost will be more expensive. The transfer rate from one settlement currency to another is set by the payment system: Visa and MasterCard.
If the currency of your Bankcard is the same as the currency of the payment system, the payment will take place without additional operations. For example, You have a dollar card, you make a payment in dollars in the United States, and if you make a payment with a dollar card in Europe, your Bank will convert the amount at its exchange rate, which will lead to additional costs. There are exceptions, some European banks can use dollars for settlements, but this is more an exception than a rule.
Also, if, for example, you pay for purchases in China using a Bank card in euros, then double conversion is inevitable.
Thus, payment in dollars is universal all over the world, except for the European Union countries. The dollar is a global currency and is therefore often used for binding in international settlements.
Now we understand that due to differences in the account currency and the differences in the VISA or MasterCard payment system, additional conversions may occur, which will lead to additional bank fees. as a result, the actual payment amount will differ from the amount debited from your card.
In addition to paying for conversion in the payment system and paying for currency conversion in your Bank, some banks charge an additional fee for conducting a cross-border transaction.

Where do we lose money when making debit card payments?


https://i.redd.it/tykhrd56ptx41.gif
  1. Currency conversion by the payment system;
  2. Euro-Dollar, or in the case of processing payment via MasterCard in Turkey, Turkish lira-Euro and additional conversion on the side of the issuing Bank (your Bank) Euro — Dollar.
  3. Currency conversion by an acquiring bank;
  4. The difference between the exchange rate on the purchase date and the write-off date. We purchased at a rate of 0.91 euros per dollar, and the write-off occurred at a rate of 0.94 euros per dollar.
  5. A large number of currency conversions.
  6. The greater the number of them, the more we will lose when buying. For example, when paying in the UAE or China, buying a product for the local currency, we understand that the number of conversions increases several times.
If we touch on the topic of international translations, we will encounter additional nuances:
  • This is the payment processing time. International payments can be processed within 3–5 days, as mentioned above, which in our dynamic time — it interferes with the comfortable use of the system.
  • Restrictions on the amounts;
  • Possible requirements for certain documentation for payment confirmation;
  • Additional fees and commissions, sometimes hidden fees.
It is not always possible to make a transfer quickly and when necessary due to these restrictions. All this confirms the complexity of the operations and additional commissions that the user pays.

Сryptocurrency exchanges

And now back to the numbers on the screen, this topic affects not only banks but also centralized cryptocurrency exchanges:
  • You top up your Deposit on the exchange in cryptocurrency-then you use numbers inside the exchange, and real funds are most often stored on “cold storage” for which administrators or other responsible persons are responsible.
  • Only when you make a withdrawal from the exchange to your wallet-you are sent real funds (tokens or cryptocurrency).
The same applies to centralized applications and online services that deal with cryptocurrencies:
There are many services, both online and apps, that are centralized, regardless of what they will be called: Bitcoin wallet or bitcoin exchange. This means that when you add funds to an account in such a wallet, the funds are stored on the developecompany’s side. In simple words, all your funds are stored in the wallets of the system’s creators.
If you use a centralized app, you have a risk of losing funds. Although the application is called cryptocurrency, it does not affect its main principles — it is decentralization.
In other words, using systems where there is a Central authority, especially in the cryptocurrency market — the risk increases, so we recommend using decentralized systems for storing currency to reduce risks to a minimum.
Decentralization is the process of redistributing, dispersing functions, forces, power, people, or things from a Central location or governing body. Centralization is a condition in which the right to make the most important decisions remains with the highest levels of management.

Peer-to-peer payment systems

The opposite and standard of security and independence are peer-to-peer payment systems. Using the application-level network Protocol, clients running on multiple computers connect to form a peer-to-peer network.

https://preview.redd.it/ojcg4fz7ptx41.png?width=601&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cc81d1617b0cb64a3f5c7cc6d06a78354386f8c
There are no dedicated servers in such a network, and each node is both a client and performs server functions. In contrast to the client-server architecture, this organization allows you to maintain the network operability with any number and any combination of available nodes. All nodes are members of the network.

https://preview.redd.it/npttc3a9ptx41.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=0f2dee1e5b19436a847dca96e2b3b7f22b801b57
Tkeycoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer payment system based on p2p principles and the concept of electronic cash. P2P technology is a fairer means of mutual settlements between users and companies around the world. Modern payment systems are imperfect and may depend on the will of high-ranking officials.
The main goal of Tkeycoin is to create universal products that will make financial transactions more accessible, profitable and secure.

https://i.redd.it/gk6j0m9bptx41.gif

What do decentralized systems protect against?

Using decentralized tools, for example, a local Tkeycoin wallet or a Multi-currency blockchain tkeyspace wallet — Your funds belong only to You and only You can use them, which eliminates the risks of third-party bankruptcy, and such a decentralized architecture can also protect against natural disasters. Given that there is no central server that can be damaged in a natural disaster, the system can work even if there are 2 nodes.

https://i.redd.it/sb6i2ladptx41.gif
In addition to force majeure situations, you protect your funds from theft and any sanctions from third parties-in our time, this is very important. The owner of Tkeycoin does not need Bank branches, does not need additional verifications, and does not need permission to use, transfer, or even transport Tkeycoin. You can easily carry $1 million worth of Tkeycoin in your pocket and even in theory not know any troubles.

https://preview.redd.it/uvw9vfyeptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=14b89acca3568fdc5eb82d986aaa2710219ced91
Besides, it is extremely convenient and safe to store even multibillion-dollar capital in Tkeycoin. Imagine that you have a lot, a lot of money, and you need a safe place to store it. Where do you apply? Of course, the Swiss Bank, Yes, but it can easily freeze your accounts and you can easily lose your savings. In recent years, many banks are actively fighting against gray non-cash funds (including offshore ones), and every month more and more legal proceedings are organized on this basis.

https://preview.redd.it/vodiuq5gptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=31ab44da4431b0159ef1213db7e37c6fd92d5b0a
The fact is that serious money, for the most part, has a gray tinge, and only a tiny fraction of billions and millions are clean for the law. That is why their owners are often called to court, subjected to pressure, forced to leave the country, and so on. If your money is stored in Tkeycoin, you will not be subjected to such pressure and will avoid the lion’s share of troubles that usually accompany accounts with many zeros.
Using peer-to-peer systems — you will not be called by a Bank Manager and require documents or a fraudster who asks for Your card number and SMS for confirmation. This is simply not the case, wallets are encrypted, and using different addresses guarantees privacy.
As for fees for transfers, there are no Visa or Mastercard payment systems, as well as additional fees that we discussed above.

How are payments made in the Tkeycoin peer-to-peer payment system?


https://i.redd.it/9ftct10iptx41.gif
As soon as you sign a transaction, it is sent to the blockchain and the miners are engaged in its confirmation, for which they take a symbolic Commission. Let’s look at an example, the key rate is $1, the transfer fee will be 0.00001970 TKEY or 0.00000174 TKEY.
0.00001970 TKEY=$0.00001970 0.00000174 TKEY=$0.00000174
Accordingly, commissions are almost zero. In Europe, on average, you will pay $15–20 for a small Bank transfer.
For example, now sending 1 million dollars to BTC, You will pay a Commission in the area of ≈3–8 dollars. Just think, 1 million dollars, without restrictions, risks, and sanctions, and most importantly, the transaction will be the available day today, and you paid an average of ≈5 dollars for the transfer.

Transactions in the Tkeycoin blockchain

Now let’s touch on the topic of how a transaction in the blockchain goes. Once you have sent a transaction, it will be available to the Recipient. The transaction takes place instantly and the User sees not” numbers on the screen”, but real funds-cryptocurrency. This is very convenient when you make any transactions and the Recipient needs to make sure that the payment came.
In the full node-there is a choice of confirmation blocks — this is the amount after which you can use the received cryptocurrency. When sending, you can select the number of confirmations:
• 2 blocks≈10 minutes • 4 block≈40 minutes • 6 blocks≈60 minutes • 12 blocks≈120 minutes • 24 blocks≈4 hours • 48 blocks≈8 hours • 144 blocks≈24 hours • 504 blocks≈3 days • 1008 blocks≈7 days
As we can see, you can also set a weekly confirmation if necessary. The minimum recommended number is 3 blocks. by default, the full node (local wallet) has 6 blocks installed. The presence of this number of confirmations ensures that Your block will not be forged and will be accepted by the network.
Each new transaction that receives network approval is sent to mempool, where it waits for miners to confirm it. When a miner takes a transaction to include it in the next block, it automatically receives the first confirmation.

Generating blocks in the TKEY network

A block in the TKEY network is generated within 6–10 minutes. the network automatically corrects the complexity and time of block formation. Thousands of transactions or a single transaction can be placed in a block.

https://i.redd.it/f9d17k8uptx41.gif
Transactions work faster in the TKEYSPACE app because we have already enabled new algorithms and this is now the fastest and most convenient way to exchange various digital currencies.

https://preview.redd.it/nnz5krdvptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=fee452ae6389c8f46d97357777193ed2b10bc4bc
Anyway, using the full node is also one of the safest ways to store and send Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, and most importantly, the full node stores a full copy of the entire blockchain, which benefits the network and provides protection from information forgery.
The more popular the project becomes, the more load is placed on the network itself. For example, 10,000 transactions passed in one block that was processed quickly, while the other 10–20 transactions in another block hung for a longer time, so temporary “pits” may appear. To deal with them, we are working on implementing additional chains-separate chains that are created for cross-transactions, which ensures fast payments under heavy load.
For the global system — we get a shipment around the world in 6–10 minutes, in cross-chains in 10 seconds. In comparison with the global payment system, which processes cross — border payments within 3–5 days, this is a huge advantage. If we add liquidity to this, we will get a perfect payment system.
https://preview.redd.it/2d0uu4gxptx41.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae5f2f0bc8b7c7dedd1814eb32e97092a6330c3a
Also, you should not forget that if you did not sync with the network and sent a transaction, the transaction may hang in its memory pool and you will have to perform several actions to solve this situation. Here we must understand that syncing with the network is an important point because if you have a connection failure in the Internet Bank, the payment will also not be processed. After all, it will not be sent to a specialist for confirmation.
If you are currently experiencing any delays with transactions, this is due to the transition of CPU mining to GPU, as soon as miners switch to new mining methods, the confirmation of blocks will be consistently fast.
In conclusion: blockchain is a new technology and many terms, concepts and how it all works are still difficult for many to understand and this is normal from innovation.
In many countries, the word cryptocurrency and blockchain are synonymous and no one wants to understand the reality, most people believe that if the blockchain, it means it is related to trading on the cryptocurrency exchange. No one thinks about the real usefulness of certain solutions that will become commonplace for Us in the future.
For example, the Internet banking system dates back to the ’80s of the last century, when the Home Banking system was created in the United States. This system allowed depositors to check their accounts by connecting to the Bank’s computer via their phone. In the future, as the Internet and Internet technologies develop, banks are beginning to introduce systems that allow depositors to get information about their accounts via the Internet. For the first time, the service of transferring funds from accounts was introduced in 1994 in the United States by the Stanford Federal Credit Union, and in 1995 the first virtual Bank was created — Security First Network Bank. But, to the disappointment of the founders of the project, it failed because of strong distrust from potential customers, who, at that time, did not trust such an innovation.
Only in 2001, Bank of America became the first among all banks that provide e-banking services, the whole user base for this service exceeded 2 million customers. At that time, this figure was about 20 % of all Bank customers. And in October of the same year, 2001, and the same Bank of America took the bar in 3 million money transfers made using online banking services for a total amount of more than 1 billion US dollars. Currently, in Western Europe and America, more than 50% of the entire adult population uses e-banking services, and this figure reaches 90% among adult Internet users.
Life changes, and in the bustle of everyday work — we do not even notice how quickly all processes change.
We are experiencing a technological revolution that is inevitable.

https://i.redd.it/afcfj3rzptx41.gif
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain

The Network of Networks, Scalable Interoperability to Unleash the True Potential of Blockchain
There is not going to be one blockchain to rule them all, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Interoperability is key to unlocking the true potential of blockchain, where it will have a profound effect across all industries, creating a secure, trusted and hyper-connected world.
The rise of The Networks of Networks, interconnecting all DLT Networks, existing off-chain networks and even the Internet itself. Where true, scalable interoperability can be achieved without requiring connected chains to fork their code and imposing limitations, without the overhead, bottleneck and single point of failure of adding another blockchain in the middle. Where it will be quick, easy and free to participate.
It’s time to stop the childish tribalism that’s plagued this space for so long and realise the bigger picture. Tribes fighting amongst themselves over a tiny insignificant island where there is a whole world out there to conquer if they work together. A rising tide lifts all boats and with the birth of The Network of Networks all connected projects can benefit from the efforts of each other, to usher in Mass adoption of Blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/m90f8021woi41.png?width=683&format=png&auto=webp&s=2b0feff5cd976d80472cbdc6f9694aaa76ba0b3f
In this article I will discuss the foundations that are being laid in preparation for the release of Overledger Network, The Network of Networks to make all of this possible and to unleash the true potential of blockchain with a secure, hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Table of Contents:
  1. Overledger SDK Update
  2. Standards
  3. Security
  4. Regulation
  5. Overledger Network
  6. The Five Ingredients of Interoperability
  7. Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger
  8. Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain
  9. Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Overledger SDK Update

Quant have just released their Overledger SDK update which has enabled standardisation of objects to abstract and simplify how to interact with different types of blockchains (UXTO and Account-based) in a common model. As well as the ability to directly deploy, invoke and query smart contracts directly through Overledger. I strongly recommend reading the teams Overledger SDK Update which explains it in more detail and includes example use cases of how Overledger is being used and the benefits it brings. Dr Luke Riley also did a fantastic job providing an in-depth demo of the Overledger SDK Update via Video as well.
https://youtu.be/PbpaZpe4mTQ

“This update sets the foundations to build the ecosystem for Overleger Network, allowing stakeholders other than Quant to write any type (DLT and non-DLT) Overledger connectors and sets up the ecosystem with multiple entry points for Overledger Gateways. These updates open up the integration capabilities of Overledger to 3rd parties and create the foundations for the Overledger Network”

Standards

“Trusted standards mean that industry doesn’t need to reinvent the wheel, that innovations will be compatible and work with existing technology, and that products and services will be trusted too. Governments use standards as trusted solutions to complement regulation, and they give peace of mind to consumers who know they are not putting themselves or their families at risk.” — Acting ISO Secretary-General Kevin McKinley
The foundations need to align with internationally recognised standards as they play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability with new and existing technology and validates a product meets the best practices / regulation required to ensure Enterprises remains in compliance. CEO of Quant, Gilbert Verdian, founded the ISO TC 307 standard covering blockchain as a whole, which 56 countries are working towards today.
Countries involved with ISO TC 307 — https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604.html?view=participation
Gilbert Verdian is the chairman for the ISO TC 307 working group for interoperability of blockchain and distributed ledger technology systems as well as being chairman for Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology for BSI (British Standards Institution) which represent the UK and includes companies such as Quant, IBM, Microsoft, HSBC, BAE Systems, Huawei as well as a number of UK Government bodies such as BEIS — Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Defence Science and Technology and the National Cyber Security Centre.
The standardisation updates to the Overledger SDK aligns with the work in ISO TC 307 and academic work from Dr Paolo Tasca and Dr Claudio Tessone to provide users with a clear distributed ledger data standard. This will enable everyone to easily create connectors in a standard way, facilitating interoperability with all of the connected blockchains / non-DLT networks that are already connected to Overledger through Overledger Gateways.

Security

Cybersecurity is in Quant’s DNA. The team have a rich heritage of working for Governments, banks and industry for over 20 years protecting organisations and people from security threats. Before Quant, Gilbert Verdian was the Chief Information Security Officer for Vocalink (Mastercard) where he was in charge of security for the entire payments infrastructure in the UK (£6 Trillion per year).
Gilbert has led a team determined to take security to another level, protecting a critical part of the UK’s infrastructure, protecting UK citizens and businesses from fraud and risk and, by extension, allowing them to live as they want to. Under Gilbert’s guidance, Vocalink security is not merely best-in-class, but setting a new standard. — https://connect.vocalink.com/2017/july/a-winning-streak/
In addition to Quant being selected as a Guarantor for Pay.UK, Gilbert has also been appointed to the Cybersecurity Advisory Board (Pay.UK is the UK’s leading retail payments authority and runs the UK’s retail payments operations, which includes Bacs, Faster Payments and Cheques.)
The pillars of security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. As such, they have used their experience in running payment and financial infrastructure and critical national infrastructure for nations and embedded these principles into every aspect of Overledger.

Regulation

Regulation is playing an ever increasing role for blockchain. Standards and Security naturally complement and help define regulation. The verticals Quant are involved in with regards to regulation span the globe. Gilbert helped shape the conversation about consumer data protection rights during his time as CISO of NSW Health, and is continuing to serve as a cornerstone for policy within the adoption of blockchain in public infrastructure. Quant serves as a founding member of INATBA (The International Association of Trusted Blockchain Applications), which is the formal governing body of the European Blockchain Partnership, all of which is overseen in Brussels by the EU. More locally, Gilbert and team are in consistent contact with the House of Lords within the UK, and advises the FCA in matters regarding cryptoassets.
https://preview.redd.it/oqdtejxpwoi41.png?width=735&format=png&auto=webp&s=874278a25adf7ed76f2c0d78a78898bc904e1780
As recently seen in the SDK update, Overledger can serve as a key component of automatic compliance of governance bodies’ financial regulation, shown here by an Overledger instance reporting to the BoE’s Prudential Regulation Authority. Project BARAC, stewarded by University College London, is a project examining the impact Automatic Regulation as administered by Blockchain can have on the Federal Government. Most notably, the FCA and R3, the developers of Corda, are involved here. Gilbert’s recent engagements with the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston also seem to revolve around this very topic, with the Boston Fed pilot-testing a Supervisor Node for automatic regulatory compliance. While at P2PFISY 2019, it was noted by Gilbert that Raphael Auer’s “Regulation Automata” aligns very well with the vision of Overledger, with Paolo Tasca, former CSO of Quant, more recently co-hosting a recent blockchain panel with him. Raphael’s ideas will most likely be taken into consideration by the BIS, as they recently announced a trial of a 6 central banks collaboration centered around exploring CBDC, and are in the early stages of installing Innovation Hubs in Hong Kong, Switzerland, and Singapore.
Gilbert Verdian with Guy Dietrich (Managing Director at Rockefeller Capital who is also on the Board at Quant) attending a meeting with the Financial Conduct Authority

Overledger Network

https://preview.redd.it/ixxeqbfywoi41.png?width=1684&format=png&auto=webp&s=cc91a25af64cfb09b550344893adcc7dad3837af
The Overledger Network is a network of networks, which allows enterprise and communities stakeholders to access and participate in a growing hyper-connected decentralised ecosystem. Enterprises, banks, central banks, trading venues, etc will be able to host their own secure dedicated gateways, enabling secure connectivity to permissioned networks, permissionless networks, ecosystems, consortia and other distributed technologies. Community members will also be able to run an Overledger gateway to further enhance the scalability, decentralisation and optimise network latency, providing enterprises, developers and users choice to use the closest gateway when accessing permissionless blockchains. The Overledger gateways will create a scalable p2p network that shares the transaction and volume between participants and chooses the closest or largest node to transact with.
As per the example use case in the recent update a Bank can run an Overledger Gateway to provide access to the various consortiums hosted on a variety of blockchains including Corda, Hyperledger Fabric and JP Morgan’s Quorum as well as access to the legacy / non-DLT platforms. Should they want to utilise a public blockchain as well in a hybrid scenario then they also have the option of using a Overledger Gateway hosted by a community member.
https://preview.redd.it/b1bx8wm0xoi41.png?width=1096&format=png&auto=webp&s=e70a9ce6c8c42aa880e0b9d1fe8ab4f3b453867e
https://preview.redd.it/8a8c13k1xoi41.png?width=1252&format=png&auto=webp&s=02cd33a79487a2a74af8a2d0f0831c06d5f62005
The Overledger Gateways contain several layers which we will explore some of their features below:

Overledger Operating System

https://preview.redd.it/7hvr91d4xoi41.png?width=1197&format=png&auto=webp&s=6e6c9b38c6e0ce133f8916bab08aad3d6b218051
Overledger allows connection to any blockchain / DAG as well as easily integrating with existing non-DLT environments. It does this without adding the overhead of yet another blockchain / consensus in the middle, ensuring that it’s scalable and doesn’t contain a single point of failure. Nor does it require the connected blockchains to fork their code to integrate and place restrictions on what can be implemented going forward. All of this is done in a secure, trustless manner where transactions are signed and encrypted client side so the contents can’t be viewed / modified as they pass through Overledger. It currently connects all of the leading permissioned and permissionless blockchains used by enterprises today. This article explains the differences between other interoperability solutions and the benefits of Quant’s approach

The Five Ingredients of Interoperability:

Recently there was an interoperability webinar with Fintech connect with speakers such as R3’s CTO Richard Gendal Brown, along with representatives from the Bank of England, Deutsche Boerse, Nasdaq, ArchaxEx and SwissRe. Richard Gendal Brown from R3 wrote about the Five key Ingredients of Interoperability:
https://preview.redd.it/l6edi3a9xoi41.png?width=2356&format=png&auto=webp&s=2f9129d9b61ba0a083e264222fc7df2dd0a2256c
  1. INTEGRATE with existing business systems — Businesses aren’t going to replace their existing applications for new blockchain ones, they need to integrate with their existing systems.
  2. INITIATE Payments on existing rails or blockchain rails — Needs to be able to make a payment / settlement using a wide variety of existing payment rails (off chain) as well as blockchain rails, ensuring delivery vs payment can be achieved with certainty that they have happened.
  3. INTERCHAIN applications and smart contracts that can be deployed / executed across protocols — Enabling a solution built on Corda such as Marco Polo to easily connect to a solution on another platform such as Vakt on Ethereum or CargoSmart on Hyperledger Fabric etc
  4. INTRACHAIN applications that benefit from value add of same underlying protocol — What happens when networks such as Marco Polo and Contour both running on Corda want to interoperate and the additional value and benefit that can be achieved.
  5. INTERCHANGE applications to switch platforms — What happens if you want to interchange one platform for another. Can you achieve that holy grail of interoperability by being able to be completely agnostic to the underlying platform?
Overledger meets all of these key ingredients in performing interoperability. Overledger enables existing business systems to benefit from blockchain connectivity by adding as little as 3 lines of code to their existing applications. No need to completely rewrite / replace their existing systems and all done in the most common programming languages such as Java and JavaScript.
https://preview.redd.it/9whqtamdxoi41.png?width=1127&format=png&auto=webp&s=1bdf408f7fe76a9fdd313ef2bc3032982d42c371
At QuantX in December they announced Overledger Interchange which enables settlement on a variety of existing non-dlt payment rails such as Faster Payments, BACS, CHAPS, SEPA, SWIFT as well as on DLT payment rails such as with Central Bank Digital Currencies, Stablecoins and XRP. It also facilitates Cross Chain Atomic Swaps using Hash Time Locked Contracts ensuring Delivery vs Payment is achieved. Interchange is at the centre of the discussions Quant has had with traditional exchanges in capital markets and central banks and is a technology financial services have been missing and was built it address client needs.
Overledger enables interoperability within the same ecosystem such as Corda DAPP to another Corda DAPP etc as well as interoperability between any of the connected permissionless and permissioned blockchains.
Quants blockchain agnostic Operating System enables users to benefit from using the best features from different chains in combination and migrate between them, preventing Vendor or Tech Lock in without having to completely rewrite existing applications, achieving the holy grail of interoperability. It enables developers to quickly test a variety of connected blockchains in a sandbox environment to see which is best suited for their requirements, starting with just 3 lines of code.

Transactions Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/swjgywqhxoi41.png?width=771&format=png&auto=webp&s=ce59d63936b6c67b27173ba8655996c28421641c
The Transaction Services layer handles more complex features of Overledger. Allowing for applications to request services such as cross-chain atomic swaps, treaty contracts (Multi Chain Smart Contracts as well as enabling smart contract functionality even on blockchains that don’t support smart contracts natively such as Bitcoin) and transaction brokering (using heuristic analysis to determine which method is the fastest / cheapest out of the various payment rails)

Financial Services Layer

https://preview.redd.it/r1v1u3tkxoi41.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=8836c2cba3370d784601cbc97c98a29172581da6
Financial services features can be called upon by participants and applications to use crosschain and cross-platform. Financial Services specific use cases can use the features in Overledger to operate across networks. This layer provides enhanced privacy and security to regulated entities and institutions who require additional controls to maintain compliance to regulation and security policy. The features of Zero-knowledge Proof and privacy can be mandated for all transactions.

Channels Layer

https://preview.redd.it/5m5pwjaoxoi41.png?width=752&format=png&auto=webp&s=d5e2fbfb47042067d2c35ab8796474a3209152a4
Channels provide interoperability of services related to digital assets, payments and tokenisation. The Overledger Network allows for participants to transfer interoperate enterprise and institutional issued tokens and assets. Connect to many existing payment rails such as SWIFT, SEPA, Faster Payments etc.
Overledger Network — Network of Networks

Connecting Blockchain and Non-DLT Applications / Networks to Overledger

The connectors to Overledger which grant access to Overledger Network will be open source and soon be made available, allowing for anyone to create a connector and benefit from being part of the ecosystem. Currently the permissionless blockchain space is mostly speculation with little adoption, mainly due to issues that need to be resolved such as scalability, privacy and regulation with permissionless blockchains, however there are some extremely large Enterprises, Banks, Governments, even Central Banks getting heavily involved and going into production albeit mostly in the permissioned blockchain space where such issues are not a problem. Just as each Blockchain has its advantages and disadvantages, parts of Enterprise applications are better suited to Permissioned blockchains (such as more sensitive parts) and permissionless blockchains suited for a higher degree of immutability, thus a Hybrid model requiring interoperability between permissioned, permissionless as well as existing non-DLT applications is required arguably for many years ahead. Just as with cloud computing where everything didn’t suddenly just move up into the cloud, well over a decade later since the birth of the likes of Amazon AWS, hybrid is still very prevalent today with only recently the likes of central banks, banks, governments discussing moving more sensitive workloads to public clouds such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud etc.

SIA, Central Banks, Banks, Trading Venues

Quant Network partnered with SIA, a game changer for mass blockchain adoption by Financial Institutions. SIA is the leading financial network provider in Europe that connects over 570 Banks, Central Banks, Trading Venues (stock exchanges etc) to their infrastructure. They provide a dedicated private network / infrastructure for financial institutions. Every European financial institution will either connect via SIA, in partnership with Colt or via SWIFT (and in many cases they will have connectivity with both) in order to access the Eurosystem Single Market Infrastructure Gateway, granting access to all RTGS, Securities and Instant Payment transactions for Europe.
SIA have integrated Overledger into their private infrastructure covering Europe consisting of 570 supernodes called SIAChain which enables each bank, central Bank, trading venue etc to utilise Overledger for interoperability. Some of the largest deployments of blockchain are happening on SIAChain such as the Spunta project where the entire Italian Banking Sector will be using blockchain and due to go live next month. As well as the “Fideiussioni Digitali” initiative (Digital Sureties) to digitize the management of sureties using blockchain technology with the Central Bank of Italy involved.
Central Bank Digital Currencies are going to play a hugely significant role in the future and there is one central Bank currently testing Overledger and Quant are in discussions with 4 others.
Connecting your blockchain / legacy network to Overledger enables the possibility that it could be used by any of these connected Banks, Central Banks, Trading venues etc in their private network (obviously due to the amount of regulation and critical financial infrastructure the options are going to be limited on what they want to connect).
https://preview.redd.it/pmbmsyauxoi41.png?width=1336&format=png&auto=webp&s=a9f3dc1d5df4300207605c01838bf86bb6c1fd80

Oracle

Quant are a Fintech Partner with Oracle, the 2nd largest software company in the world and Oracle are taking Quant’s tech to their clients directly. They have 480,000 clients globally and towards the end of last year Oracle invited Quant to attend Sibos (SWIFT) where they met existing financial services and banking clients and introduced to new ones. By connecting to Overledger this also enables your solution to potentially be used by those 480,000 of Oracle’s global clients.

https://preview.redd.it/1zz702ywxoi41.png?width=1220&format=png&auto=webp&s=f56f2b9257ae6c4b2357c58339061e24da4933b3

SIMBA Chain

SIMBA Chain is a cloud-based, smart-contract-as-a-service (SCaaS) platform, enabling users across a variety of skill sets to implement dapps (decentralized applications). The easy-to-use platform is tailored for users, developers, government, and enterprises to quickly deploy blockchain dapps for their enterprise. SIMBA Chain are developing on Quant’s Overledger Blockchain OS to allow them to deploy DAPPs across multiple connected blockchains.
SIMBA Chain have recently been awared a $9.5 million contract with the US Navy, they are also working with the US Air Force. They have a thriving ecosystem with over 1100 Organizations and 650+ Applications developed. Partners include Microsoft, Government Blockchain Association, Air Force Research Laboratory, Caterpillar, SAP and EY. Recently they also integrated Unity 3D plugin for Gaming to enable owning, storing, and managing all personal gaming assets across a variety of blockchains.
These are just a few of the companies that Quant have partnered with directly, but the ecosystem for Overledger Network is the Network of Networks. Every connected blockchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple (XRPL), EOS, Stellar, IOTA, DAG, R3’s Corda, Hyperledger Fabric, JP Morgan’s Quorum and other Permissioned Variants of Ethereum) and their associated partners / applications built on them have the ability to connect and interoperate with the other blockchains connected as well as non-DLT networks such as existing payment rails like SWIFT, Faster Payments, SEPA etc. This Network of Network’s effects will grow exponentially as more and more join the ecosystem.

https://preview.redd.it/x5t16hazxoi41.png?width=590&format=png&auto=webp&s=71cd81b0781b082fa6c8a4470ffc9325d08ed0f5

Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain

Quant Network are also developing the ability to allow developers to build MAPPs that integrate directly with the internet as well as blockchain data. They will enable this via creating a new IP address for blockchains which they are calling Quant IP which will enable traffic to be routed from an IP connection from the Internet through Overledger to the connected blockchains.
Another Quant product called Seeq is a distributed search engine that is able to search and retrieve data from multiple blockchains and display them via html directly from the blockchain. More details will be released about Seeq later this year.
Connecting the Internet directly to blockchain will allow websites to be natively created and served directly from blockchains, without the need to have, run and maintain web servers, web services, SSL certificates etc and all running in a completely trusted, extremely resilient / tamperproof environment. The implications of this are enormous and more details will be released by the team later on this exciting prospect. By connecting your blockchain to Overledger you will also be able to benefit from this.

Join your favourite Blockchain project to the Overledger Network Ecosystem

Instead of the current mentality of having the main focus for many projects of listing on exchanges for vast sums of money, why not spend a little time (connectors can be created in as little as a week of development and don’t necessarily even need to be created by the team themselves) and make your blockchain / non-DLT application available to be used by all existing enterprises / members. Not only that but if you also run an Overledger Gateway connecting your blockchain node you also benefit from the transaction fees of the traffic going to it. The connectors are open source and completely free to connect and now with the standardisation of Objects in the recent SDK update the foundations are in place for the launch of Overledger Network with an ETA of Q2 2020. If you would like your favourite blockchain project to interoperate and be part of the ecosystem to further adoption then make the relevant people aware and keep an eye out for further details released in the future.

https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/the-network-of-networks-scalable-interoperability-to-unleash-the-true-potential-of-blockchain-c54e7d373d2d

Thanks to community member Ghost of St. Miklos for contributing the section about regulation as well as Sonic for proofreading.
You can find more about Overledger Network as well as the token utility — here and community member David W. wrote an excellent article “A deeper look into the Quant Network Utility Token (QNT) valuation dynamics and fundamentals”
What is a blockchain operating system and what are the benefits? Introducing Overledger from Quant Network.
Wall Street 2.0: How Blockchain will revolutionise Wall Street and a closer look at Quant Network’s Partnership with AX Trading
Large Enterprise Adoption of Blockchain is happening, enabled by Quant Network’s Overledger
As well as an 8 Part Series taking an indepth look at Overledger starting with Part 1
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining Profitability: How Long Does it Take to Mine One Bitcoin in 2019?

When it comes to Bitcoin (BTC) mining, the major questions on people’s minds are “how profitable is Bitcoin mining” and “how long would it take to mine one Bitcoin?” To answer these questions, we need to take an in-depth look at the current state of the Bitcoin mining industry — and how it has changed — over the last several years.
Bitcoin mining is, essentially, the process of participating in Bitcoin’s underlying security mechanism — known as proof-of-work — to help secure the Bitcoin blockchain. In return, participants receive compensation in bitcoins (BTC).
When you participate in Bitcoin mining, you are essentially searching for blocks by crunching complex cryptographic challenges using your mining hardware. Once a block is discovered, new transactions are recorded and verified within the block and the block discoverer receives the block rewards — currently set at 12.5 BTC — as well as the transactions fees for the transactions included within the block.
Once the maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoins has been mined, no further Bitcoins will ever come into existence. This property makes Bitcoin deflationary, something which many argue will inevitably increase the value of each Bitcoin unit as it becomes more scarce due to increased global adoption.
The limited supply of Bitcoin is also one of the reasons why Bitcoin mining has become so popular. In previous years, Bitcoin mining proved to be a lucrative investment option — netting miners with several fold returns on their investment with relatively little effort.
bitcoin mining hardware
Mining Hardware
The mining hardware you choose will mostly depend on your circumstances — in terms of budget, location and electricity costs. Since the amount of hashing power you can dedicate to the mining process is directly correlated with how much Bitcoin you will mine per day, it is wise to ensure your hardware is still competitive in 2019.
Bitcoin uses SHA256 as its mining algorithm. Because of this, only hardware compatible with this algorithm can be used to mine Bitcoin. Although it is technically possible to mine Bitcoin on your current computer hardware — using your CPU or GPU — this will almost certainly not generate a positive return on your investment and you may end up damaging your device.
The most cost-effective way to mine Bitcoin in 2019 is using application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) mining hardware. These are specially-designed machines that offer much higher performance per watt than typical computers and have been an absolutely essential purchase for anybody looking to get into Bitcoin mining since the first Avalon ASICs were shipped in 2013.
When it comes to selecting Bitcoin mining hardware, there are several main parameters to consider — though the importance of each of these may vary based on personal circumstances and budget.
Performance per Watt
When it comes to Bitcoin mining, performance per watt is a measure of how many gigahashes per watt a machine is capable of and is, hence, a simple measure of its efficiency. Since electricity costs are likely to be one of the largest expenses when mining Bitcoin, it is usually a good idea to ensure that you are getting good performance per watt out of your hardware.
Ideally, your mining hardware would be highly efficient, allowing it to mine Bitcoin with lower energy requirements — though this will need to be balanced with acquisition costs, as often the most efficient hardware is also the most expensive. This means it may take longer to see a return on investment.
In countries with cheap electricity, performance per watt is often less of a concern than acquisition costs and price-performance ratio. In most countries, operating outdated mining hardware is typically cost prohibitive, as energy costs outweigh the income generated by the mining equipment.
However, this may not be the case for those operating in countries with extremely cheap electricity — such as Kuwait and Venezuela — as even older equipment can still be profitable. Similarly, miners with a free energy surplus, such as from wind or solar electric generators, can benefit from the minimal gains offered by still running outdated hardware.
Longevity
The lifetime of mining hardware also plays a critical role in determining how profitable your mining venture will be. It’s always a good idea to do whatever possible to ensure it runs as smoothly as possible.
Since mining equipment tends to run at a full (or almost full) load for extended periods, they also tend to break down and fail more frequently than most electronics — which can seriously damage your profitability. Equipment failure is even more common when purchasing second-hand equipment. Since warranty claims are often challenging, it can often take a long time to receive a warranty replacement.
Price-Performance Ratio
In many cases, one of the major criteria used to select mining hardware is the price-performance ratio — a measure of how much performance a machine outputs per unit price. In the case of cryptocurrency mining hardware, this is commonly expressed as gigahashes per dollar or GH/$.
Under ideal circumstances, the mining hardware would have a high price-performance ratio, ensuring you get a lot of bang for your buck. However, this must also be considered in combination with the acquisition costs and the expected lifetime of the machine — since the absolute most powerful machines are not always the cheapest or the most energy efficient.
Acquisition Costs
Acquisition costs are almost always the biggest barrier to entry for most Bitcoin miners since most top-end mining hardware costs several thousand dollars. This problem is further compounded by the fact that many hardware manufacturers offer discounts for bulk purchases, allowing those with deeper pockets to achieve a better price-performance ratio.
Acquisition costs include all the costs involved in purchasing any mining equipment, including hardware costs, shipping costs, import duties, and any further costs. For example, many ASIC miners do not include a power supply — which can be another considerable expense, since the 1,000W+ power supplies usually required tend to cost several hundred dollars alone.
Ensuring your equipment runs smoothly can also add in additional costs, such as cooling and maintenance expenses. In addition, some miners may want to invest in uninterruptible power supplies to ensure their hardware keeps running — even if the power fails temporarily.
asic mining
Current Generation Hardware
One of the most recent additions to the Bitcoin mining hardware market is the Ebang Ebit E11++, which was released in October 2018. Using a 10nm fabrication process for its processors, the Ebit E11++ is able to achieve one of the highest hash rates on the market at 44TH/s.
In terms of efficiency, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is arguably the best on the market, offering 44TH/s of hash rate while drawing just 1,980W of power, offering 22.2GH/W performance. However, as of writing, the Ebang Ebit E11++ is out of stock until March 31, 2019 — while its price of $2,024 (excluding shipping) may make it prohibitively expensive for those first getting involved with Bitcoin mining.
Another popular choice is the ASICminer 8 Nano, a machine released in October 2018 that offers 44TH/s for $3,900 excluding shipping. The ASICminer 8 Nano draws 2,100W of power, giving it an efficiency of almost 21GH/W — slightly lower than the Ebit E11++ while costing almost double the price. However, unlike the E11++, the 8 Nano is actually in stock and available to purchase.
ASICminer also offers the 8 Nano Pro, a machine launched in mid-2018 that offers 80 TH/s of hash rate for $9,500 (excluding shipping). However, unlike the Ebit E11++ and 8 Nano, the minimum order quantity for the 8 Nano Pro is curiously set at five, meaning you will need to lay out a minimum of $47,500 in order to actually get your hands on one (or five).
While the 8 Nano Pro doesn’t offer the same performance per watt as the Ebit E11+ or AICMiner 8 Nano, it is one of the quieter miners on this list, making it more suitable for a home or office environment. That being said, the ASICminer 8 Nano Pro is easily the most expensive miner per TH on this list — costing a whopping $118.75/TH, compared to the $46/TH offered by the E11++ and $88.64 offered by the 8 Nano.
The latest hardware on this list is the Innosilicon T3 43T, which is currently available for pre-order at $2,279, and estimated to ship in March 2019. Offering 43TH/s of performance at 2,100W, the T3 43T comes in at an efficiency of 20.4GH/W, which is around 10 percent less energy efficient than the Ebit E11++.
The T3 43T also has a minimum order quantity of three units, making the minimum acquisition cost $6837 + shipping for preorders. All in all, the T3 43T is more costly and less efficient than the E11++ but may arrive slightly earlier since Ebang will not ship the E11++ units until at least end March 29, 2019.
Finally, this list would not be complete without including Bitmain’s latest offering, the Antminer S15-28TH/s, which — as its name suggests — offers 28TH/s of hash power while drawing just under 1600W at the wall. The Antminer S15 is one of the only SHA256 miners to use 7nm processors, making it somewhat smaller than some of the other devices on this list.
Like most pieces of top-end Bitcoin mining hardware, the Antminer S15 27TH/s model is currently sold out, with current orders not shipping until mid-February 2019. However, the S15 is offered at a significantly lower price than many of its competitors at just $1020 (excluding shipping), with no minimum quantity restriction. At these rates, the Antminer comes in at just $37.78/TH — though its energy efficiency is a much less impressive 17.5GH/W.
Mining Hardware Mining Hardware Comparison
Performance (GH/W) Price Performance Ratio ($/TH)
Ebang Ebit E11++ 22.2GH/W $46/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano 21GH/W $88.64/TH
ASICminer 8 Nano Pro 19GH/W $118.75/TH
Innosilicon T3 43T 20.4GH/W $53/TH
Antminer S15-28TH/s 17.5GH/W $37.78/TH
How To Select a Good Mining Pool
Mining pools are platforms that allow miners to pool their resources together to achieve a higher collective hash rate — which, in turn, allows the collective to mine more blocks than they would be able to achieve alone.
Typically, these mining pools will distribute block rewards to contributing miners based on the proportion of the hash rate they supply. If a pool contributing a total of 20 TH/s of hash rate successfully mines the next block, a user responsible for 10 percent of this hash rate will receive 10 percent of the 12.5 BTC reward.
Pools essentially allow smaller miners to compete with large private mining organizations by ensuring that the collective hash rate is high enough to successfully mine blocks on regular basis. Without operating through a mining pool, many miners would be unlikely to discover any blocks at all — due to only contributing a tiny fraction of the overall Bitcoin hash rate.
While it is quite possible to be successful mining without a pool, this typically requires an extremely large mining operation and is usually not recommended — unless you have enough hash rate to mine blocks on a regular basis.
Although it is technically possible to discover blocks mining solo and keep the entire 12.5 BTC reward for yourself, the odds of this actually occurring are practically zero — making pool collaboration practically the only way to compete in 2019 and beyond.
Selecting the best pool for you can be a challenging job since the vast majority of pools are quite similar and offer similar features and comparable fees. Because of this, we have broken down the qualities you should be looking for in a new pool into four categories; reputation, hash rate, pool fees, and usability/features:
Reputation
The reputation of a pool is one of the most important factors in selecting the pool that is best for you. Well-reputed pools will tend to be much larger than newer or less well-established pools since few pools with a poor reputation can stand the test of time.
Well-reputed pools also tend to be more transparent about their operation, many of which provide tools to ensure that each user is getting the correct reward based on the hash rate contributed. By using only pools with a great reputation, you also ensure your hash rate is not being used for nefarious purposes — such as powering a 51 percent attack.
When comparing a list of pools that appear suitable for you, it is a wise move to read their user reviews before making your choice — ensuring you don’t end up mining at a pool that steals your hard-fought earnings.
Hash Rate
When it comes to mining Bitcoin, the probability of discovering the next block is directly related to the amount of hashing power you contribute to the network. Because of this, one of the major features you should be considering when selecting your pool is its total hash rate — which is often closely related to the proportion of new blocks mined by the pool
Since the total hash rate of a pool is directly related to how quickly it discovers new blocks, this means the largest pools tend to discover a relative majority of blocks — leading to more regular rewards. However, the very largest pools also tend the have higher fees but often make up for this with sheer success and additional features.
Sometimes, some of the largest pools have a minimum hash rate requirement ù leaving some of the smaller miners left out of the loop. Although smaller pools typically have more relaxed requirements with reduced performance thresholds, these pools may be only slightly more profitable than mining solo.
Pool Fees
When choosing a suitable pool, typically one of the major considerations is its fees. Typically, most pools will charge a small fee that is deducted from your earnings and is usually around 1-2 percent — but sometimes slightly lower or higher.
There are also pools that offer 0 percent fees. However, these are often much smaller than the major pools and tend to make their money in a different way — such as through monthly subscriptions or donations.
Ideally, you will choose the pool that offers the best balance of fees to other features. Usually, the pool with the absolute lowest fees is not the best choice. Additionally, pools with the lowest fees often have the highest withdrawal minimums — making pool hopping uneconomical for most.
Usability and Features
When first starting out with Bitcoin mining, learning how to set up a pool and navigating through the settings can be a challenge. Because of this, several pools target their services to newer users by offering a simple to navigate user interface and providing detailed learning resources and prompt customer support.
However, for more experienced miners, simple pools don’t tend to offer a variety of features needed to maximize profitability. For example, although many mining pools focus their entire hash rate towards mining a single cryptocurrency, some are large enough to offer additional options — allowing users to mine other SHA256 coins such as Bitcoin Cash (BCH) or Fantom if they choose.
These pools are technically more challenging to use and mostly designed for those familiar with mining, happy to hop from coin to coin mining whichever is most profitable at the time. There are even some exchanges that automatically direct their combined hash rate at the most profitable cryptocurrency — taking the guesswork out of the equation.
bitcoin mining pool
Best Mining Pools for 2019
The Bitcoin mining pool industry has a large number of players, but the vast majority of the Bitcoin hash rate is concentrated within just a few pools. Currently, there are dozens of suitable pools to choose from — but we have selected just a few of the best to help get you started on your journey.
Slushpool was the first Bitcoin mining pool released, being launched way back in 2010 under the name “Bitcoin Pooled Mining Server.” Since then, Slushpool has grown into one of the most popular pools around — currently accounting for just under 10 percent of the total Bitcoin hash rate.
Although Slushpool isn’t one of the very largest pools, it does offer a newbie-friendly interface alongside more advanced features for those that need them. The pool has moderately high fees of 2 percent but offers servers in several countries — including the U.S., Europe, China, and Japan — giving it a good balance of fees to features.
BTC.com is another potential candidate for your pool and currently stands as the largest public Bitcoin mining pool. It is responsible for mining around 17 percent of new blocks. Being the largest public mining pool provides users with a sense of security, ensuring blocks are mined regularly and a stable income is made.
Image courtesy of Blockchain.info.
BTC.com is owned by Bitmain, a company that manufacturers mining hardware, and charges a 1.5 percent fees — placing it squarely in the middle-tier in terms of fees. Unlike other platforms, BTC.com uses its own payment structure known as FPPS (Full Pay Per Share), which means miners also receive a share of the transaction fees included within mined blocks — making it slightly more profitable than standard payment per share (PPS) pools.
Another great option is Antpool, a mining pool that supports mining services for 10 different cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Litecoin (LTC) and Ethereum (ETH). AntPool frequently trades places with BTC.com as the largest Bitcoin mining pool. However, as of this writing, it occupies the title of the third-largest public mining pool.
What sets Antpool apart from other pools is the ability to choose your own fee system — including PPS, PPS+, and PPLNS. If you choose PPLNS, using Antpool is free but you will not receive any transaction fees from any blocks mined. Antpool also offers regular payouts and has a low minimum payout of just 0.001 BTC, making it suitable for smaller miners.
Last on the list of the best Bitcoin mining pools in 2019 is the Bitcoin.com mining pool. Although this is one of the smaller pools available, the Bitcoin.com pool has some redeeming features that make it worth a look. It offers mining contracts, allowing you to test out Bitcoin mining before investing in mining equipment of your own. According to Bitcoin.com, they are the highest paying Pay Per Share (PPS) pool in the world, offering up to 98 percent block rewards as well as automatic switching between BTC and BCH mining to optimize profitability.

Electricity Costs
While your mining hardware is most important when it comes to how much BTC you can earn when mining, your electricity costs are usually the largest additional expense. With electricity costs often varying dramatically between countries, ensuring you are on the best cost-per-KWh plan available will help to keep costs down when mining.
Most commonly, large mining operations will be set up in countries where electricity costs are the lowest — such as Iceland, India, and Ukraine. Since China has one of the lowest energy costs in the world, it was previously the epicenter of Bitcoin mining. However, since the government began cracking down on cryptocurrencies, it has largely fallen out of favor with miners.
Technically, Venezuela is one of the cheapest countries in the world in terms of electricity, with the government heavily subsidizing these energy costs — while Bitcoin offers an escape from the hyperinflation suffered by the Venezuelan bolivar. Despite this, importing mining hardware into the country is a costly endeavor, making it impractical for many people.
Finding ways to lower your electricity costs is one of the best ways to improve your mining profitability. This can include investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, or wind — which can yield increased profitability over the long term.
if you are looking to buy bitcoin mining equipment here is some links:

Model Antminer S17 Pro (56Th) from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 56Th/s for a power consumption of 2385W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s17-pro-56th-copy/?wpam_id=17
Model Antminer S9K from Bitmain mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 14Th/s for a power consumption of 1323W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/bitmain-antminer-s9k-14-th-s/?wpam_id=17
Model T2T 30Tfrom Innosilicon mining SHA-256 algorithm with a maximum hashrate of 30Th/s for a power consumption of 2200W.
https://miningwholesale.eu/product/innosilicon-t2t-30t/?wpam_id=17
mining wholesale website:
https://miningwholesale.eu/?wpam_id=17
submitted by mohamadk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Crypto and the Latency Arms Race: Crypto Exchanges and the HFT Crowd

Crypto and the Latency Arms Race: Crypto Exchanges and the HFT Crowd


News by Coindesk: Max Boonen
Carrying on from an earlier post about the evolution of high frequency trading (HFT), how it can harm markets and how crypto exchanges are responding, here we focus on the potential longer-term impact on the crypto ecosystem.
First, though, we need to focus on the state of HFT in a broader context.

Conventional markets are adopting anti-latency arbitrage mechanisms

In conventional markets, latency arbitrage has increased toxicity on lit venues and pushed trading volumes over-the-counter or into dark pools. In Europe, dark liquidity has increased in spite of efforts by regulators to clamp down on it. In some markets, regulation has actually contributed to this. Per the SEC:
“Using the Nasdaq market as a proxy, [Regulation] NMS did not seem to succeed in its mission to increase the display of limit orders in the marketplace. We have seen an increase in dark liquidity, smaller trade sizes, similar trading volumes, and a larger number of “small” venues.”
Why is non-lit execution remaining or becoming more successful in spite of its lower transparency? In its 2014 paper, BlackRock came out in favour of dark pools in the context of best execution requirements. It also lamented message congestion and cautioned against increasing tick sizes, features that advantage latency arbitrageurs. (This echoes the comment to CoinDesk of David Weisberger, CEO of Coinroutes, who explained that the tick sizes typical of the crypto market are small and therefore do not put slower traders at much of a disadvantage.)
Major venues now recognize that the speed race threatens their business model in some markets, as it pushes those “slow” market makers with risk-absorbing capacity to provide liquidity to the likes of BlackRock off-exchange. Eurex has responded by implementing anti-latency arbitrage (ALA) mechanisms in options:
“Right now, a lot of liquidity providers need to invest more into technology in order to protect themselves against other, very fast liquidity providers, than they can invest in their pricing for the end client. The end result of this is a certain imbalance, where we have a few very sophisticated liquidity providers that are very active in the order book and then a lot of liquidity providers that have the ability to provide prices to end clients, but are tending to do so more away from the order book”, commented Jonas Ullmann, Eurex’s head of market functionality. Such views are increasingly supported by academic research.
XTX identifies two categories of ALA mechanisms: policy-based and technology-based. Policy-based ALA refers to a venue simply deciding that latency arbitrageurs are not allowed to trade on it. Alternative venues to exchanges (going under various acronyms such as ECN, ATS or MTF) can allow traders to either take or make, but not engage in both activities. Others can purposefully select — and advertise — their mix of market participants, or allow users to trade in separate “rooms” where undesired firms are excluded. The rise of “alternative microstructures” is mostly evidenced in crypto by the surge in electronic OTC trading, where traders can receive better prices than on exchange.
Technology-based ALA encompasses delays, random or deterministic, added to an exchange’s matching engine to reduce the viability of latency arbitrage strategies. The classic example is a speed bump where new orders are delayed by a few milliseconds, but the cancellation of existing orders is not. This lets market makers place fresh quotes at the new prevailing market price without being run over by latency arbitrageurs.
As a practical example, the London Metal Exchange recently announced an eight-millisecond speed bump on some contracts that are prime candidates for latency arbitrageurs due to their similarity to products trading on the much bigger CME in Chicago.
Why 8 milliseconds? First, microwave transmission between Chicago and the US East Coast is 3 milliseconds faster than fibre optic lines. From there, the $250,000 a month Hibernia Express transatlantic cable helps you get to London another 4 milliseconds faster than cheaper alternatives. Add a millisecond for internal latencies such as not using FPGAs and 8 milliseconds is the difference for a liquidity provider between investing tens of millions in speed technology or being priced out of the market by latency arbitrage.
With this in mind, let’s consider what the future holds for crypto.

Crypto exchanges must not forget their retail roots

We learn from conventional markets that liquidity benefits from a diverse base of market makers with risk-absorption capacity.
Some have claimed that the spread compression witnessed in the bitcoin market since 2017 is due to electronification. Instead, I posit that it is greater risk-absorbing capacity and capital allocation that has improved the liquidity of the bitcoin market, not an increase in speed, as in fact being a fast exchange with colocation such as Gemini has not supported higher volumes. Old-timers will remember Coinsetter, a company that, per the Bitcoin Wiki , “was created in 2012, and operates a bitcoin exchange and ECN. Coinsetter’s CSX trading technology enables millisecond trade execution times and offers one of the fastest API data streams in the industry.” The Wiki page should use the past tense as Coinsetter failed to gain traction, was acquired in 2016 and subsequently closed.
Exchanges that invest in scalability and user experience will thrive (BitMEX comes to mind). Crypto exchanges that favour the fastest traders (by reducing jitter, etc.) will find that winner-takes-all latency strategies do not improve liquidity. Furthermore, they risk antagonising the majority of their users, who are naturally suspicious of platforms that sell preferential treatment.
It is baffling that the head of Russia for Huobi vaunted to CoinDesk that: “The option [of co-location] allows [selected clients] to make trades 70 to 100 times faster than other users”. The article notes that Huobi doesn’t charge — but of course, not everyone can sign up.
Contrast this with one of the most successful exchanges today: Binance. It actively discourages some HFT strategies by tracking metrics such as order-to-trade ratios and temporarily blocking users that breach certain limits. Market experts know that Binance remains extremely relevant to price discovery, irrespective of its focus on a less professional user base.
Other exchanges, take heed.
Coinbase closed its entire Chicago office where 30 engineers had worked on a faster matching engine, an exercise that is rumoured to have cost $50mm. After much internal debate, I bet that the company finally realised that it wouldn’t recoup its investment and that its value derived from having onboarded 20 million users, not from upgrading systems that are already fast and reliable by the standards of crypto.
It is also unsurprising that Kraken’s Steve Hunt, a veteran of low-latency torchbearer Jump Trading, commented to CoinDesk that: “We want all customers regardless of size or scale to have equal access to our marketplace”. Experience speaks.
In a recent article on CoinDesk , Matt Trudeau of ErisX points to the lower reliability of cloud-based services compared to dedicated, co-located and cross-connected gateways. That much is true. Web-based technology puts the emphasis on serving the greatest number of users concurrently, not on serving a subset of users deterministically and at the lowest latency possible. That is the point. Crypto might be the only asset class that is accessible directly to end users with a low number of intermediaries, precisely because of the crypto ethos and how the industry evolved. It is cheaper to buy $500 of bitcoin than it is to buy $500 of Microsoft shares.
Trudeau further remarks that official, paid-for co-location is better than what he pejoratively calls “unsanctioned colocation,” the fact that crypto traders can place their servers in the same cloud providers as the exchanges. The fairness argument is dubious: anyone with $50 can set up an Amazon AWS account and run next to the major crypto exchanges, whereas cheap co-location starts at $1,000 a month in the real world. No wonder “speed technology revenues” are estimated at $1 billion for the major U.S. equity exchanges.
For a crypto exchange, to reside in a financial, non-cloud data centre with state-of-the-art network latencies might ironically impair the likelihood of success. The risk is that such an exchange becomes dominated on the taker side by the handful of players that already own or pay for the fastest communication routes between major financial data centres such as Equinix and the CME in Chicago, where bitcoin futures are traded. This might reduce liquidity on the exchange because a significant proportion of the crypto market’s risk-absorption capacity is coming from crypto-centric funds that do not have the scale to operate low-latency strategies, but might make up the bulk of the liquidity on, say, Binance. Such mom-and-pop liquidity providers might therefore shun an exchange that caters to larger players as a priority.

Exchanges risk losing market share to OTC liquidity providers

While voice trading in crypto has run its course, a major contribution to the market’s increase in liquidity circa 2017–2018 was the risk appetite of the original OTC voice desks such as Cumberland Mining and Circle.
Automation really shines in bringing together risk-absorbing capacity tailored to each client (which is impossible on anonymous exchanges) with seamless electronic execution. In contrast, latency-sensitive venues can see liquidity evaporate in periods of stress, as happened to a well-known and otherwise successful exchange on 26 June which saw its bitcoin order book become $1,000 wide for an extended period of time as liquidity providers turned their systems off. The problem is compounded by the general unavailability of credit on cash exchanges, an issue that the OTC market’s settlement model avoids.
As the crypto market matures, the business model of today’s major cash exchanges will come under pressure. In the past decade, the FX market has shown that retail traders benefit from better liquidity when they trade through different channels than institutional speculators. Systematic internalizers demonstrate the same in equities. This fact of life will apply to crypto. Exchanges have to pick a side: either cater to retail (or retail-driven intermediaries) or court HFTs.
Now that an aggregator like Tagomi runs transaction cost analysis for their clients, it will become plainly obvious to investors with medium-term and long-term horizons (i.e. anyone not looking at the next 2 seconds) that their price impact on exchange is worse than against electronic OTC liquidity providers.
Today, exchange fee structures are awkward because they must charge small users a lot to make up for crypto’s exceptionally high compliance and onboarding costs. Onboarding a single, small value user simply does not make sense unless fees are quite elevated. Exchanges end up over-charging large volume traders such as B2C2’s clients, another incentive to switch to OTC execution.
In the alternative, what if crypto exchanges focus on HFT traders? In my opinion, the CME is a much better venue for institutional takers as fees are much lower and conventional trading firms will already be connected to it. My hypothesis is that most exchanges will not be able to compete with the CME for fast traders (after all, the CBOE itself gave up), and must cater to their retail user base instead.
In a future post, we will explore other microstructures beyond all-to-all exchanges and bilateral OTC trading.
Fiber threads image via Shutterstock
submitted by GTE_IO to u/GTE_IO [link] [comments]

Why I Am Holding WaltonChain (WTC)

I would like to share some insight on why I am holding Walton (WTC).. Remember this is just my personal opinion and you should always do your own research and come up with your own assessment before investing.
When it comes to investing, one of the primary things I look for is growth potential. And when it comes to Waltonchain, I feel like the potential for growth is so extreme that it could be unprecedented. Of course I can't say for certain Waltonchain will make investors wealthy. But what I will say is Waltonchain is no stranger to the rapidly growing RFID technology, nor the market it resides in.
About Waltonchain
Everyone knows what a UPC code (bar code) is.. it stores the price and helps retail stores keep track of inventory levels. The advancement of this technology is what brought us RFID tags.. Below are the benefits RFID has over the traditional UPC bar code.
What Waltonchain has done is taken the RFID technology to the next level by combining it with blockchain technology.. (See below)
Technical advantages of Waltonchain RFID tags.
Example of RFID in the real world
Rather than simply identifying an item as a box of Cheerios (as bar codes do), an RFID chip can uniquely identify a particular box of Cheerios and enable it to be tracked all the way through the sales chain, from the warehouse to a consumer’s shopping cart. This level of uniqueness in tracking can, for example, aid in the removal of expired merchandise from store shelves or assist in locating items designated as part of a product recall. - Snopes
Waltonchain's 4-phase development plan.
Walton team has formulated a 4-phase development plan, starting from infrastructure platform establishment to gradually incorporating retail, logistics and product manufacturing, and to finally achieving the full coverage of business ecosystem.
Basically Walton works with retail, logistics, and product manufacturing to improve efficiency on all fronts. The entire process from manufacturing all the way to delivery can be assisted and improved with Waltonchain. Waltonchain achieves this by developing state of the art tamper-resistant RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) chips with storage and encryption capabilities. Waltonchains RFID chips can be applied to any tangible item allowing traceability and improved security throughout its journey.
Phase 1
The team has developed the clothing system integration scheme based on RFID. The system has been implemented in Tries, SMEN and Kaltendin. The condition of widely application and promotion has been met. The team starts to research and develop the RFID beacon chip with proprietary intellectual property rights.
Phase 2
The RFID chips will be mass-produced and used in clothing, retail and logistics. This includes store pickup, pricing, order placing, packing and storage, sorting and distribution, store management, dispatching, customer signature, customer assessment and feedback.
Phase 3
Manufacturers will achieve traceable intelligent packaging. The entire processes will be covered, including material purchasing, production, assembly operation, packaging and inventory management. The quality of the materials can be verified and tracked to the source easily. Counterfeit goods can be eliminated to ensure customer interests.
Phase 4
In the future, all assets can be registered in Waltonchain and problems in asset ownership and traceability will be resolved.
Waltonchain isn't just an idea or some dream, it's becoming a reality. Product testing with manufacturers, warehouses and retail stores is already underway. Even though Waltonchain has a long road ahead (Roadmap), I believe there will be a growing demand not just for RFID technology, but specifically for Waltonchains RFID technology.
Let's take a look at some Q&A's collected from AMA's and FAQ.
How much money has gone into R&D so far? Will we see pictures of the hardware anytime soon?
So far between Silicon, Dr. Kim's Lab, and Waltonchain China and Waltonchain Korea, we have approximately spent $8million dollars in R&D alone. Walton chain RFID system prototype has been fabricated and the photos will be shown next month.
Does the Walton team currently hold, or have plans to file for, any patents that directly related to the RFID tag IC it has plans to produce?
Walton team has written and submitted at least four RFID-related patents. our senior advisor Dr. Kim owns 10s of patents, our affiliate Silicon owns many patents as well. (As you can see form CEO Mo Bing’s introduction video). All of the above patents should be and will be readily available for our use to product Waltonchain’s IP advantages over our potential competitors.
If at some point in the future other companies want to use RFID chips using technology created by WaltonChain, will they pay royalties to WaltonChain for technology patented by WaltonChain members?
Yes.
What would be an example or scenario, of a RFID chip applying to the average person daily life? Maybe even if they are not aware of their tech surroundings
Many, e.g. supermarket merchandise inventory, RFID anti-theft system of clothing store and so on. You can pretty much think that we would almost work in any scenario with tangible products. But our focus is firstly to break through the clothing industry right now. Think about Walmart or Target and Costco, and then think about their suppliers, the businesses that supply to these large retailers. They can all be our clients.
Have you tested your RFID tech with any company outside of the clothing industry?
Yes, we also test in retail stores and warehouses.
Why choose the application of garment industry as the breakthrough point in Phase 1.0 of this project?
*The RFID tag has achieved the management of item level in the application of garment industry. Hence, the number of usage is enormous. Large amounts of experimental data can be obtained easily in the development and early application of the chip, as a result of which the chip and system technologies will mature quickly ;
*Many core members of the team have years of industry experience in the field of garment, and they are also familiar with the garment industry, the application of RFID intelligent system, and the promotion of software informationization products and other areas. With abundant resources of customer channels, the upfront cost of customer development is low. Therefore, it is possible to enter the market rapidly and to build up customer base in early days.
Does WaltonChain has its own blockchain?
Waltonchain is a self-developed public blockchain, and the wallet is expected to be online at the end of October. For now, WTC is an ERC20 token but when the Genesis block has been mined the token based on Ethereum will be replaced by the actual Walton Coin with the exchange rate of 1:1.
How much testing has been done in real companies who have opted for integration of WTC to see if it will be long term beneficial?
Up to now, many companies such as Tries, Joeone, SMEN in the apparel industry, Kehua, Lipson plastic in the manufacturing industry and Xiangyu group in the warehouse industry have applied for our WTC & RFID integration system. What is impressive is that all of them have benefited a lot by integrating our system! Compared to before integration, their yield rate has increased by 1.2%, the stock turnover increased by 5.8%, the distribution efficiency has improved by almost 100%, and the inventory efficiency almost tripled in their stores.
For customer information please refer to list below:
With the government subsidizing the project, are you able to provide any other insight into the involvement of the government (including other countries)?
Quanzhou Silicon, the technology backup of WTC in China and a subsidiary of the Silicon Group, has been awarded the “second-class international qualification”, and has received project subsidies from the local government of Quanzhou City, Fujian province. Another subsidiary of the Silicon Group, Nanjing Silihua is also involved in the R&D of the parent chain of WTC. The block chain system developed by this company has received substantial recognition by the technology staff of the government. And it is currently applying for the science and technology award of the Nanjing government.
Apart from this, Xiameng IOT Technology Co.,Ltd, another subsidiary of the Silicon Group, has received a 5-million-yuan subsidy for the project “Smart Ocean of Fujian Province”. The subsidy will be used for the establishment of an IOT-RFID system and the development of the corresponding series of products, which will be a dramatic driving force to the development of Smart Ocean industry in China. So far, the IOT-RFID product has made its footprint across the provinces and cities of mainland China, as well as in Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, other southeastern Asian countries, North America and Europe . Its stability, sensitivity and reliability have been the model in the industry.
The Walton Coin (WTC)
  • Any child chain creation needs to expend Walton Coins (WTC). As the Walton ecosystem continues to grow, an increasing number of businesses will be joining the ecosystem, as a result of which they will expend a growing amount of WTC to create all kinds of child chains. Thus, the demands for WTC will rise correspondingly.
  • WTC is the only token of the parent chain in the entire business ecosystem. Any cross-child-chain data transmission and asset exchange will expend WTC. Once the ecosystem has been in place, the demands from the businesses for WTC will keep expanding.
  • The allocation mechanism of the transaction fees (such as A coins and B coins ) expended in the important officially-released child chains will be adjusted in an innovative manner, such as those in the transaction child chain or the sales child chain which will be used in the high-frequency circulation. Most of the transaction fees (say 90%) will be allocated to the wallets of child chain book-keeping nodes, while a small proportion (say 10%) will be exchanged to WTC and allocated to the wallets of parent chain book-keeping nodes.
As mentioned in the White paper, RFID tags can also play a vital role in smart stores. Although not unique to Waltonchain here are some RFID and smart store examples..
  • Smart hanger function: when the customer picks up the clothes on the smart hanger, the smart hanger automatically identifies the clothing label in the hands of the customer, the touch screen displays all the information of the clothes in a timely manner and inputs the data into the background server at the same time; the analyzing software automatically counts the data and generates statistical reports of each period for managers to view.
  • Smart fitting room function: when the customer picks up the clothes and walks into the fitting room, the smart fitting room automatically identifies the clothing label in the hands of the customer, the touch screen displays all the information of the clothes in a timely manner and inputs the data into the background server at the same time; the analyzing software automatically counts the data and generates statistical reports of each period (houmonth) for managers to view and estimate the production plan and popular designs according to the fitting rate.
  • Quick check-out function: using RFID can automatically identify the target information, the receiver can read multiple tags at once within its effective working range to achieve the simultaneous identification of multiple products, thus speeding up the check-out process and improve customer satisfaction.
  • Quick Decisions: A customer can't decide which of 3 dresses she wants. To help her decision, she looks at the RFID data and the movement of the dress in the store. It's there that she notices dresses #1 and #2 are often taken to the fitting rooms, but from there, dress #1 outsells dress #2. Dress #3 on the other hand barely makes it to the fitting room at all. Now, she's able to refine her decision making.
RFID technology is a rapidly growing market estimated to reach $40 billion by 2025. It's a competitive market with RAIN RFID (Board of directors include Google, Impinj, AIM, Smartrac and Amazon) but don't let that discourage you.. RFID is still in its infancy in terms of implementation which means there is plenty of room for growth and competition. And let's not forget, Waltonchain also has an impressive team and something RAIN doesn't... Blockchain technology. Waltonchain has patents readily available which gives it advantages over potential competitors.
You know.. I am not a writer but I tried to summarize Walton and it's potential the best I could. Even after reading this post you may not understand the probability of success. But i'll tell you this.. Finding manufacturers and retail stores in China to help launch this technology is NOT difficult at all. It would be quite the opposite, manufacturers and retail stores would be more than willing to participate considering the benefits RFID provides. It's the blockchain technology behind Waltonchains RFID chips, the ongoing research and development, the security, the intellectual property and everything in-between that makes Waltonchain valuable. Now I am not saying I think Walton will own every RFID smart-tag in existence, but I do believe Waltonchain's technology has potential to capture a good portion of the market long-term. Now remember, I am just telling you why I am holding Waltonchain and you should always research and come up with your own assessment before investing.
Regards,
BTC2018
Upcoming Waltonchain Events
  • Migration to own blockchain - End of October
  • Wallet released - End of October
RFID and Internet of Things:
The number and range of IoT applications that can be envisioned with RFID devices are simply tremendous. The inherent value of RFID lies in enabling “things” to report data in real time for faster, quicker, more interactive decisions both at the industrial level and — increasingly — at the consumer level.
Perhaps the best-known concept, sometimes called the “killer app” for IoT, is the interconnected, automated home, where people can interact with everyday devices in their homes. This vision of the future sees appliances such as refrigerators being aware of their ‘state’, and knowing when to order and replenish groceries; electronics such as lighting, music and TV automatically tuning to individual preferences, which can be managed by presence (proximity to RF-enabled device), by time or by sensory input; access solutions, whether logical ones for Wi-Fi user authorization, or hands-free operation of doors and windows... the possibilities are truly endless. - Smartrac Group
RFID Information:
  • The global radio frequency identification (RFID) technology market is estimated to reach USD 40.5 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. MarketWatch, May 2017
  • "We definitely see continued growth in retail, and unfolding to the point that it becomes as common as the barcode," - Carl Rysdon, VP of sales for Checkpoint Systems
  • "As good as this sounds, and as big as these numbers might appear, RFID adoption is still only scratching the surface — even when looking at retail apparel applications, where RFID tagging is perhaps achieving 1% of the total available market. Looking outside retail apparel, it’s even more obvious that RFID is still in its infancy in terms of implementation, considering the trillions of objects all around us that can be RFID-enabled." - ChainLink Research
References:
Ill just toss this out there.. I think WaltonChain needs a new and secure website.
submitted by BTC2018 to u/BTC2018 [link] [comments]

Check out Part 2 of our first Skycoin Official AMA with Synth

Enjoy Part 2 of 2 of the Skycoin Official AMA with Synth for March, 2018. Part 1 is posted here.
 
How will skywire stop centralization such as massive skywire node forwarding servers, like with the current internet?
There will be more competition between pools in Skycoin than there is in Bitcoin. If that problem occurs, then we will deal with it, we have strategies and models in place to handle this potential scenario.
 
How will it stop whales building humongous skyminer pools in massive cities such as New York that will forward all the nodes in that city?
If a whale wants to come in and invest 1 billion dollars, to take control of the internet service for a whole city, then it will only make Skycoin grow faster. If it becomes a problem like what is happening for Bitcoin right now, then we have plans in place to handle the issue.
The miner pools can only be so abusive in Skycoin, because if the pools are too abusive, then other people will switch to smaller pools that give them a better deal.
 
How do you solve mining for bandwidth? What is to stop an attacker putting two routers next to each other to print money?
This is of the reasons why Skycoin will work and we do not think we have any viable competitors. We know how to solve this problem.
The short answer is that we are not paying users for bandwidth. Users are paying each other. So if you put two routers next to each other in a loop, then you are paying yourself for your own bandwidth! So you are not printing money. It is the same as moving money from one of your wallets, to the other wallet.
Skycoin does not “print money”. There is zero inflation. It is a closed loop economy.
Our mathematical models show that if the network is not running in closed loop, that you can always game the system and eventually botnets will take over all of the rewards.
There is another way we found, which uses a bandwidth credit system and later we can build futures and derivatives markets. Since bandwidth is scarce, but is wasted if not used our algorithm allows a certain amount of fraud (acceptable loss ratio) to be factored in but mathematically guarantees that the fraud stays below a certain threshold. There is a maximum amount or upper bound a node can get away with, before it detected and the other nodes stop working with the node.
Basicly, eventually the nodes have a reputation system and nodes prefer other nodes who follow the rules over nodes that try to engage in bandwidth fraud.
We have a simple working solution for the testnet, then we will start building up the full solution, which will also improve the network performance a lot by directing most of the rewards at trustworthy nodes with a high uptime, lower latency and higher bandwidth capacity. The node reputation system will take a bit of work, but will allow us to do a lot of new thing with QoS and routing.
 
Since the people using Skywire resources depend on those resources to report what happens to the outside world, how do you stop adversarial actors from defrauding users using information asymmetry between the users and the blockchain? How do you do this without an enormous amount of overhead?
Adversarial actors are a major problem in any system where anything of value is concerned.
If you do not have a solution for fraud, then bots will come in and steal all the money. Imagine you are running a poker site with 100,000 humans on it. Then someone floods the poker site with 1 million bots (who are better at poker than humans). The bots are going to steal all the money from your users and they will leave (because they are only losing now and the game is not balanced anymore).
If you tell people “I will give you money for running this computer program”, there are people who control 15 million computers and they will just run the program on their botnet. All of the money will goto the bots.
Skywire solves the bot problem by a sort of peer-to-peer whitelisting protocol. We do not let people flood the network with bots. Each node maintains a peer list and if you want to peer a human has to add the peer on both ends by hand, so it’s harder for a botnet to come in and try to take over.
People, because they are social, will peer with people they know personally (their own social network or communities). It’s designed so that people with high quality, hand curated peer lists will have a significant advantage over someone who peers with 10 million slow botnet computers, running on laptops running windows XP. Also people who own dedicated hardware will also have much better performance metrics and will be rewarded more than botnet computers.
The overhead for the record keeping is only 2% to 6% of the total bandwidth in the network, depending on how long the sessions are and the specifics. So the overhead is at the same level as for the existing internet.
 
Why did you use Orange Pi’s, that have their NIC on a USB 2.0 bus, for the hardware in the Skynodes?
Ideally, for security, the NIC should not have DMA (Direct Memory Access). USB 3.0 is a nightmare. USB 2.0 is bad and USB 1.0 is actually better (more secure, but slower).
The NIC drivers or firmware usually have a lot of dangerous security problems.
We are designing a custom PCB and there are several security, cost, design issues that do not have a clear best solution. The NIC is on the USB 2.0 bus, primarily because that is what the chip supports and because of cost.
 
What is to stop the cable lobbyist and the FCC who have already proven they will go against the will of the people from banning skywire? Couldn't they stop people from getting access to the backhaul and outright outlaw the entire concept? When I asked on the Telegram everyone dismissed the concern and said 'its impossible to stop us, look at the darknet'. And while that is true, for skywire to work don't you need widespread normie adoption? What percentage of people would actually run this if they banned it?
There are many, extremely wealthy and powerful groups that are being squeezed out by the FCC and the internet monopolies. There are some surprising large and powerful players that will support (publicly or clandestinely) any project that gives them some breathing room from the telecom squeeze out.
We want them to try to ban Skywire. That means we are winning.
You have to understand the context of the FCC and the cable companies.
The cable companies were forced to be very aggressive and remove net neutrality and start using mafia extraction tactics against companies like Netflix and Google, because of earnings pressure. The cable companies all have declining revenue because people are using the internet for video and are “cord cutting”. The CEOs and management are desperate to keep their stock prices up and slow down the earnings decline.
The CEOs of the cable companies are under extreme pressure to increase earnings in the short term, but are using tactics that will create a lasting long term backlash. The CEOs will increase earnings, they will see their stock prices go up, they will cash out their options and retire to the Hamptons. The backlash will be the next CEOs problem.
Skywire is global and the FCC only matters in the US. In Europe there is much more diversity in ISPs and you wont see the type of battle and resistance they will put on in the US.
The cable companies are dying. They are the dinosaurs whining and moaning before the meteor impact. Fighting technology innovations like Skywire is part of the process of the demise of these telecom monopolies, but it is not something to worry about.
If they are attacking us, it means we are winning. We will be ready.
 
Do you have an estimate for when coin hours will have value and be tradable?
We are working on getting the exchange up, but it will need to wait until the testnet. First we will make coinhours tradable, then we will open them up for exchange.
 
How, in simple terms, do coin hours prevent spam?
The more they spam, the more scarce and expensive the coinhours become. If someone spams or attacks Skycoin, the Skycoin price will actually go up.
Since there are only a finite, scarce number of Skycoin and each Skycoin generates a fixed number of coinhours per hour; then coinhours become scarce and valuable. They put a price on transactions.
An attacker or spammer has to ask “Should I just sell my coinhours for money or should I spam and lose money?”. Eventually the spammer will use up all of his coinhours and then will have to buy them from someone else to keep spamming. Eventually they will even drive the market rate of the coinhours up, until the spamming becomes so expensive that they run out of money or give up.
 
On telegram you wrote coin hours are meant to be volatile if I'm not mistaken. Will this be a problem in the future?
It depends. By shuffling volatility from Skycoin, to the coin hours it makes Skycoin more valuable as a store of value and as a currency for transactions.
We want people to spend coin hours. If Skycoin is going up everyday 5% a day, why would you spend it? If we priced the bandwidth in Skycoin, the whole network would shutdown because everyone would just be hoarding their Skycoin instead of spending them! That is why we introduced coinhours.
Coinhours solve the problem of hoarding and gives people a currency which they are encouraged to spend. Skycoin is a better store of value because there is no inflation, while coinhours are better for transactions because they have an inflation rate that encourages people to spend them.
The market cap of the Skycoin coinhours could actually be higher than the market cap of Skycoin under some conditions.
Everyone is very excited to see what the price coinhours settle at. People are betting on the market and cannot wait to trade and speculate on the coinhours (either dumping them before they go down to zero, or hoarding them incase they go up 500x). I was surprised at how excited people are about the coinhours.
 
Are there any more coins launching on skyledger soon you can talk about?
Kittycash.com, mdl.life, SPACO, solarbankers.com, and more...
I have been so busy with Skycoin I cannot even keep up with the new ICOs.
We are opening up the platform now and more people will be launching coins that I could possible keep track of. We should probably have a registry to track the Skyledger ICOs.
 
Will it be easier to launch coins on skyledger in the future? Any other skyledger updates?
Yes. We have a script now for launching new coins!
In 30 seconds you will be able to: Create your coin Have your ICO software running to collect money Have the coin automatically listed on an internal exchange (instead of waiting 8 months to get listed on some mega exchange) Have mobile, desktop and hardware wallet support Skyledger is getting a rebranding and its own marketing team. We have several flagship coins in development, that will help alot for Skycoin marketing.
 
Synth mentioned months ago in the telegram chat that Obelisk was still in development, when and how will the algorithm be tested and release? How are the actual transactions validated if obelisk is not the algorithm used?
We have done several simulations. There are several peer reviewed academic research papers published about it. There are open source simulations in the github repo.
The exchanges are worried about us enabling the full consensus algorithm without enough testing. We have to do a lot of testing before we turn everything on.
Currently the exchanges forced us to use a masternode dev check-point system. Over time, we are going to make extensive changes to the node and keep minting on the checkpoint system, while rolling out everything. Then after extensive testing, will roll out everything in stages.
The testing of the new features and stages, needs to be done on a smaller coin (other Skyledger coins) before being rolled out to Skycoin. Skycoin’s market cap is too large and we have to be cautious about bugs and not rolling out new code before its tested.
The dev check-point system is a compromise that allows us to test new consensus algorithms, while protecting the exchanges. If the exchanges lose money from a bug and lose $200,000 in Skycoin then we have to pay them for the lose basicly.
The exchanges are all short-staffed because of massive user base growth. They are taking weeks sometimes to upgrade the Skycoin node version, after we release a new version. We have to carefully coordinate our release and upgrade schedules to minimize exchange downtimes.
The short answer, is; we can roll out everything in a few weeks (if we had to). Everything is tested and ready to go. However, because of the exchanges are overloaded, we have to roll it out carefully in planned stages, with a months notification for any changes.
I think everything will be in place by the end of the year, but the Skywire testnet is taking a lot of development resources, so we will push it back if that means Skywire gets launched faster.
Also, then we are always improving things. So even after it “done”, its not really done. It always need more developers working on it and improving everything. We think “one second transaction are fast enough”, then someone comes in with a video game they want to put on blockchain and suddenly we need 200 ms. The demands are endless.
When all of this work is done, it will also mean that we have the best blockchain platform. So we need to have a marketing event built around this. It may not make sense to do it in the middle of Skywire launch mania, because we can only handle so many things at once.
News like this, we also have to make sure we release it into an upward market, when a lot of people are paying attention to innovations in blockchain technology. It would be wasted if we released big news or features, when people were not paying attention.
 
What's in store for Skycoin this year?
To many things. Everything. All at once. Its crazy.
We are opening a hardware incubator, which is the most exciting thing for me. I think we will not see the real applications of blockchain until we get blockchain into the physical world.
 
Where do you see this project in 5 years, where in 10 years? (What is your long term goal?)
We are moving so fast. I could not imagine that we did as much as we have, in such a short time. I cannot even keep up with how many things are in development now.
The goal this year is to demonstrate real world applications of blockchain technology. To bring blockchain to the physical world and make it tangible.
The goal in five years is to make blockchain obsolete and to create what comes after blockchain. We are experimenting with a thing we have started to call the “Fibre”. I do not think innovation will stop at blockchain.
The third generation of coins is going to be post-blockchain and want to be a leader in this area.
 
How long before I can buy a coffee with Skycoin?
As soon as I buy a coffee shop, lol.
 
When the community try to bring more people to skycoin, specially those with big money, we have to face the fact that the time locked distribution is not auditable (or it is?) is there any strategy to calm the doubts about the distribution method (the developers hold the majority of the coins/ are the only ones able to mint coins)
One of the advantages of blockchain is that all of the transaction are public. So the distribution schedule is auditable. Skycoin’s distribution is completely public. The distribution addresses are also public. So it is very transparent.
There is an api endpoint here with the distribution addresses and information updated in real time https://explorer.skycoin.net//api/coinSupply
 
In your blogs you are talking about the possibility of a ninja announcement that burns 80% tokens. That means it will be only 20 mil sky. So, in which circumstances devs would do that?
If we can find a closed loop, economic model for Skywire, that does not require a 15 or 20 year distribution period. Then we will burn the coins. Then the distribution would be capped at 30 million instead of 100 million.
Right now, we need the coins held aside for infrastructure investment, to grow the network and maintain the project.
There are some future components, that could eliminate the need for infrastructure fund and enable the network to be self-financing. Even if we get these components in place, what it means is that the infrastructructure fund will just allow us to grow even faster! So we might still not burn the coins.
You cannot underestimate what it will mean if we are investing 100 million dollars a year of coins into growth. This is the fuel that drives the growth of the ecosystem, so it does not make sense to “burn” the fuel. If there are more projects we can invest in, to grow faster, then we should do that.
 
In your opinion, what is the best exchange for buying Skycoin right now, and why? And on what other exchanges will Skycoin be listed, and when?
C2CX is good. Cryptopia is also good but withdrawals are slow.
We will be listed on larger exchanges this year, but cannot give details. We signed contracts but the exchanges grew from 1 million users to 8 million users in a few months, so their technical teams are overloaded. Listing a new coin can take 6 months after signing the agreement now. We are doing all we can to expedite the process.
 
Will the Kittycash platform be advertised across cat loving forums and the like?
LOL.
 
What will the value of legendary kittys be in 2019?
People are spending 1 or 2 Bitcoin per legendary kitty now. Kitty Cash had to stop selling legendary kitties, because fifty people were trying to buy each kitty and too many people were trying to buy them at once.
 
When will SKY be listed on new exchanges?
We were listed on four new exchanges this month. Wolfcrypto, Next, and two other exchanges. I cannot even keep track of it.
We signed contracts with the largest exchanges, but are still waiting for technical integration and we signed contracts not to disclosure information about specific exchange listings.
The exchanges are very overloaded right now, with technical problems from user growth and also from hundreds of coin ICOs that all want to be listed at once. Millions of people per month are registering on the Bitcoin exchanges now and the exchanges are overloaded. It can be a six month waiting list for listing now, after contracts have been signed, so we are just waiting at this point. However, big exchanges are coming soon.
submitted by MuSKYteer to skycoin [link] [comments]

SporeStack: Launching a server with Bitcoin (Part 1) 2013-1 ORDERING A CLOUD VPS @GIGAS Dedicated Servers how to make a motd for your source dedicated server How to mine $1,000,000 of Bitcoin using just a laptop ...

It was originally simply called “Bitcoin Pooled Mining Server” or BPMS for short. Since the launch, the pool has had its ups and downs but things have been mostly positive recently. Satoshi Labs run Slush Pool. You may also know Satoshi Labs from their work on Trezor, the first Bitcoin hardware wallet and Coinmap, a world map outlining which merchants accept Bitcoin. They also invented the ... Bitcoin Exchange. Start your trading journey today. Securely buy, sell, and build your cryptocurrency portfolio. Casino. Now you can win big with the official Bitcoin.com casino, play our exclusive games using Bitcoin (BTC). Local. Join our Local Bitcoin Cash (BCH) marketplace to get the best margins on every trade. Spend Bitcoin . Discover businesses that let you pay for goods and services ... You can rely on Europe’s most powerful VPS hosting. You deserve 100% uptime, instant load speeds, and unrivaled support. Get it with EuroVPS - fast, secure, and GDPR compliant servers. Managed VPS Hosting. Zero maintenance hosting. learn more . Shared Web Hosting. Quality, low-cost hosting. learn more . Dedicated Servers. Extreme power and flexibility. learn more "It's not easy to find a ... However, it is still sitting on a server you don’t control. This means you need to trust the server owner to: not lie about hashing the private key ; hash the private key properly so attackers cant get it. Both of these are big problems, since it would be very easy for a web wallet to lie about not keeping a copy of the private key and take your coins. Even if the server owner has attempted ... Get your own dedicated root server at an unbeatable price AX-Line Server. from 39.44 € Brand new AMD processors PX-Line Server. from 85.84 € Dependable brand name hardware with Xeon processors SX-Line Server. from 74.24 € Storage and protection for your sensitive data DELL PowerEdge. from 184.44 € Brand name hardware that fits your business Web Hosting from 1.85 € Managed Servers ...

[index] [18120] [3983] [29587] [35323] [12166] [29308] [1574] [49061] [37177] [48539]

SporeStack: Launching a server with Bitcoin (Part 1)

This video will show you how to start bitcoin mining from home. It's very easy and "free" to do if you have a gaming PC. *****... me showing you how to make a motd for your source dedicated server. Category Education; Show ... Bill Gates about Microsoft Future, Quantum Power, Bitcoin Evolution Microsoft Europe 28,441 ... dedicated exchange server dedicated servers reviews dedicated server prices dedicated server space dedicated web servers dedicated cloud servers dedicated host servers hosted dedicated server ... 🚩 01:49 Bitcoin.com Launches New Cryptocurrency Exchange With Dash Trading Pairs ... Dash News is the world’s premier news service covering Dash and the exciting emerging field of digital ... Mining Bitcoin is as easy as installing the mining software on the PC you already own and clicking start. Anyone can do this and see the money start rolling ...

#